Space tourism is space travel for recreational, recreational or professional purposes. A number of startups have emerged in recent years, hoping to create the space tourism industry. Tourist space trips have always been limited and expensive. Only the Russian Space Agency has provided this service to date.
To the International Space Station aboard the Russian Soyuz spacecraft were $ 20- $ 35 million, from 2001-2009. Some space tourists have signed contracts with a third party to manage confirmed research activities while in orbit.
In 2010, the Russian government halted space tourism, due to the increase in the International Space Station crew that year, and used its seats for astronauts instead of tourists. However, tour operations are tentatively planned to resume in 2013, while the number of three-person Soyuz spacecraft launches could increase to five times a year.
As an alternative to the term “tourism”, some organizations such as the Commercial Spaceflight Association used the term “personal spaceflight” while the Civilian Space Project used the term “civil space exploration”. Tropical, varying intervals and created comforts
Do you dream of going into space? It will soon be possible. From 2019, the company Blue Origin, created by Jeff Bezos, CEO and founder of Amazon, offers return trips for space aboard the rocket New Shepard. If the concept is dreaming, the price of the trip, a little less. For ten minutes in space, the ticket is not less than 200 000 dollars, or 171 000 euros, according to Reuters information.
The New Shepard will accommodate six passengers, before being propelled to several times of altitude. The ten minute trip will allow the astronauts to feel and become a spectator of the Earth from the sky. The return will be more hectic, then it is expected that travelers return to a pressurized capsule slowed by parachutes. It had six hours of observation three times larger than that of a Boeing 747.
The New Shepard rocket has already achieved eight test flights, with its edge a dummy test nicknamed “Skywalker Mannequin”. The company plans future tests with passengers in the coming weeks.
Jeff Bezos is never alone in banking on space tourism. Richard Branson, with Virgin Galactic, and Elon Musk, with Space X, also plan to launch their own flights to space.
Space food is a type of food product created and processed for consumption by astronauts in outer space. The food has specific requirements of providing balanced nutrition for individuals working in space, while being easy and safe to store, prepare and consume in the machinery-filled weightless environments of crewed spacecraft.
In recent years, space food has been used by various nations engaging on space programs as a way to share and show off their cultural identity and facilitate intercultural communication. Although astronauts consume a wide variety of foods and beverages in space, the initial idea from The Man in Space Committee of the Space Science Board in 1963 was to supply astronauts with a formula diet that would supply all the needed vitamins and nutrients.
- Beverages (B) – Freeze dried drink mixes (coffee or tea) or flavored drinks (lemonade or orange drink) are provided in vacuum sealed beverage pouches. Coffee and tea may have powdered cream and/or sugar added depending on personal taste preferences. Empty beverage pouches are provided for drinking water.
- Fresh Foods (FF)– Fresh fruits, vegetables, and tortillas delivered by resupply missions. These foods spoil quickly and need to be eaten within the first two days of the package’s arrival to the ISS to prevent spoilage. These foods are provided as psychological support.
- Irradiated (I) Meat – Beef steak that is sterilized with ionizing radiation to keep the food from spoiling. NASA has dispensation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use this type of food sterilization.
- Intermediate Moisture (IM) – Foods that have some moisture but not enough to cause immediate spoilage.
- Natural Form (NF) – Commercially available, shelf-stable foods such as nuts, cookies, and granola bars that are ready to eat.
- Rehydratable (R) Foods – Foods that have been dehydrated by various technologies (such as drying with heat, osmotic drying, and freeze drying) and allowed to rehydrate in hot water prior to consumption. Reducing the water content reduces the ability of microorganisms to thrive.
- Thermostabilized (T) – Also known as the retort process. This process heats foods to destroy pathogens, microorganisms, and enzymes that may cause spoilage.
- Extended shelf-life bread products – Scones, waffles, and rolls specially formulated to have a shelf life of up to 18 months.
More common staples and condiments do not have a classification and are known simply by the item name:
- Shelf Stable Tortillas – Tortillas that have been heat treated and specially packaged in an oxygen-free nitrogen atmosphere to prevent the growth of mold.
- Condiments – Liquid salt solution, oily pepper paste, mayonnaise, ketchup, and mustard.
Over the course of its near 15 years of continuous habitation, 220 people from 17 different nations have visited the International Space Station. Astronauts onboard are typically active for at least 9 ½ hours per day doing science, exercising, and maintaining systems. Excluding scheduled time for sleep and lunch, astronauts have only 4 hours of free time per day during the work week, and that includes time for meals and general hygiene.
Even with a loaded calendar, the few who have such an opportunity to live in the microgravity environment find ways to make the most of this experience. Here are a just few of their favorite things about living in space:
One of the most self-explanatory (and most fun!) aspects of living in space for the astronauts is “flying.” In space there is no up or down, so there is no floor. Astronauts use rails to push themselves among modules, mostly with their hands. It takes a bit to get used to, but over the course of their 6-month stay they can become quite the acrobat. Above, astronaut Tom Marshburn flies around Kibo successfully using his hands, feet, and flipping skills to go from one end of the module to the other.
Astronauts actually describe the food aboard the space station as quite tasty! In part, that’s because they have a large role in choosing their own meals. Over time, though, a lot of the astronauts experience desensitized taste buds from the shifting fluid to their head. Toward the end of their expedition, spicy foods tend to be their favorites because of this phenomenon. Above, astronaut Chris Cassidy dines with his fellow crewmates and enjoys a bite from a floating spoon.
Liquid behaves very differently in space than it does on Earth. Astronauts cannot simply pour a cup of coffee into a mug. Without gravity, it would stick to the walls of the cup and would be very difficult to sip. Most of the time, astronauts fill a bag with liquid and use a special straw with a clamp to keep the contents from flying out. Above, astronaut Scott Kelly flings a liquid ball of espresso successfully into his mouth. He also happens to catch a tiny rogue bubble with his swift hands.
The space station crew occasionally gets downtime which they can spend however they please. Sometimes they watch a movie, read a book, or take photos of the Earth from the Cupola windows. Other times they invent games to play with each other, and each crew tends to come up with new games. Sometimes it can be hitting a target, flying from one end of the station to the other fastest, or playing zero-gravity sports. Above, astronaut Alexander Gerst plays soccer with his fellow crewmates. The lack of gravity makes a successful bicycle kick much easier to accomplish.
Going Out For A Walk
Preparing and executing a spacewalk can take around 8 to 12 hours, and it can be a jam-packed schedule. Spacewalkers have to be focused on the task at hand and sticking to the timeline, but every once and a while they can catch a spare moment to glimpse the Earth 250 miles below. Many astronauts describe that view from a spacewalk as one of the most beautiful sights in their lives. Above, astronaut Terry Virts shows moments from his spacewalk with astronaut Barry “Butch” Wilmore from a GoPro camera.
Time is a complex subject for physicists. Einstein showed that time and space are intimately linked and that the progression of time is relative, not absolute. Although there is nothing in physics that says time must flow in a certain direction, scientists generally agree that time is a very real property of the Universe. Our science is thus based on the assumption that the laws of physics, and the passage of time, exist throughout the Universe. Common intuition previously supposed no connection between space and time. Physical space was held to be a flat, three-dimensional continuum—i.e., an arrangement of all possible point locations—to which Euclidean postulates would apply. To such a spatial manifold, Cartesian coordinates seemed most naturally adapted, and straight lines could be conveniently accommodated. Time was viewed independent of space—as a separate, one-dimensional continuum, completely homogeneous along its infinite extent. Any “now” in time could be regarded as an origin from which to take duration past or future to any other time instant. Uniformly moving spatial coordinate systems attached to uniform time continua represented all unaccelerated motions, the special class of so-called inertial reference frames. The universe according to this convention was called Newtonian. In a Newtonian universe, the laws of physics would be the same in all inertial frames, so that one could not single out one as representing an absolute state of rest.